Abate Technologies International, Inc.

ATI QUARTERLY
2nd QUARTER 2004

 

 

NEW SCAQMD RULE FOR DIESEL GENERATORS
In June of 2003, the South Coast Air Quality Management District directed its staff to provide health protection to schools located near diesel engines. The staff proposed Rule 1470 (Control of Emissions from Diesel-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines) in response to the Board’s directive. The rule will apply to stationary compression ignition engines, defined as engines that remain in one location for twelve months or longer. District staff estimates that there are approximately 7,800 stationary engines at 4,900 facilities in AQMD’s jurisdiction. Of these engines, 250 are prime engines (used for non-emergency operations such as compressors, cranes, rock crushers and agricultural irrigation). The remaining engines, making up 97% of the total, are emergency engines (e.g., sewage disposal, lighting, ventilation, hospital and convalescent facility medical support systems). The SCAQMD estimates that the changes will impact 180 to 1,100 engines located on school grounds or within 100 meters from existing schools. This represents 125 to 750 facilities. SCAQMD staff reports that the geocodes used to determine engine location do not allow for precise pinpointing of either engine locations or school boundaries. Thus, a broad range of potentially impacted facilities and equipment was used.

In 1998, the California Air Resources Board identified diesel particulate matter as a Toxic Air Contaminant. In addition, in 2001, the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment identified diesel particulate as one of the Toxic Air Contaminants that may cause infants and children to be more susceptible to illness. As part of implementing the Diesel Risk Reduction Plan, the ARB adopted an Air Toxics Control Measure to reduce diesel PM emissions from stationary diesel engines. Rule 1470 incorporates newly adopted state requirements (see article on ARB’s Air Toxics Control Measure) and establishes more stringent requirements for stationary diesel-fueled (emergency & prime) engines located on school grounds or within 100 meters or less from existing schools.

Rule 1470 was adopted by the AQMD Board on April 2, 2004. A summary of key Rule 1470 requirements follows:

New Emergency stand-by diesel-fueled compression ignition engines >50 brake horsepower-hour:

  • Engines located 100 meters or less from a school, are not allowed to operate for non-emergency use (including testing and maintenance) From 7:30 AM to 4:30 PM. This operating restriction will become effective in June 2004.
  • Sales or operation of diesel engines located 100 meters or less from schools existing as of April 2004, are prohibited unless: 1) the engine meets a 0.01 gram/bhp-hr PM standard and operates 100 hours per year or less for maintenance and equipment testing; emergency use and emission testing not included 2) the engine must meet hydrocarbon, NOx and CO standards for off-road engines of the same model year and horsepower rating specified in the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards; or if no standards have been established, the engine must meet the Tier I standards in Title 13 CCR section 2423 for off-road engines of the same horsepower rating, irrespective of the new engine’s model year.
  • Emergency engines used for public services that are remotely located are exempt so long as: 1) the engine or engine block is located more than one mile from any onsite home, school, daycare center, nursing home, and/or hospital and 2) the cumulative impacts of emissions from all such engines or engine blocks within a one-mile radius results in a prioritization score of less than 1, or a carcinogenic risk of less than one in one million and a Hazard Index of less than 0.1.

In-Use Emergency Standby Diesel-Fueled Compression Ignition Engines > 50 bhp

  • Engines located 100 meters or less from a school, are not allowed to operate for non-emergency use (including testing and maintenance) when school activities are taking place. This operating restriction will become effective two months after rule adoption.
  • Diesel emergency engines sited on school property or within 100 meters of schools existing as of April 2004 and certified in accordance with the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards must choose one of two options: 1) reduce the diesel PM emission rate by at least 85 percent from baseline level and operate 75 hours per year or less for maintenance and testing [by January 1, 2006 through January 1, 2009 as specified in the applicable subdivision (e) compliance schedule] or 2) emit diesel PM at a rate less than or equal to 0.01 gram/bhp-hr and operate 100 hours per year or less for maintenance and testing [by January 1, 2006 through January 1, 2009 as specified in the applicable subdivision (e) compliance schedule].
  • Diesel emergency engines sited on school property or within 100 meters of schools existing as of April 2004 and not certified in accordance with the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards shall comply with either Option 1, Option 2 (see above) or Option 3) reduce the diesel PM emission rate by at least 30 percent from the baseline level and operate 20 hours per year or less for maintenance and testing, no later than January 1, 2006 and emit diesel PM at a rate of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or less and operate 100 hours per year or less for maintenance and testing by no later than July 1, 2011.
  • Emergency engines used for public services that are remotely located are exempt so long as 1) the engine or engine block is located more than one mile from any onsite home, school, daycare center, nursing home, and/or hospital and 2) the cumulative impacts of emissions from all such engines or engine blocks within a one-mile radius results in a prioritization score of less than 1, or a carcinogenic risk of less than one in one million and a Hazard Index of less than 0.1.
  • Clean fuels (natural gas, methanol, or liquefied natural gas) shall be required if the fuel is determined to be available and accessible.
  • Engines that will comply solely by reducing operating hours must do so by January 1, 2006.

The following table shows some alternative control strategies identified by SCAQMD:

Table 1. Diesel Control Strategies

Technology/ Approximate cost*
Description
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)
$38 per horsepower
The DPF’s are designed to allow exhaust gases to pass through but trap diesel particulate matter. Emission reductions of up to 85% (diesel PM) are possible. In addition, Hydrocarbons and CO can be reduced by up to 95% and NOx by up to 10%. Periodic regeneration (burning of diesel PM via heat or catalyst) is necessary.
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
$10 per horsepower
Reduce diesel PM emissions by up to 30 percent via platinum group metals. Can also reduce hydrocarbon and CO by 76 percent and 46 percent respectively as well as other toxic air emissions such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by up to 80%.
Flow Through Filters (FTFs)
Cost figure not available
FTFs channel exhaust gases through a catalytically active medium that causes turbulent flow conditions. Emission reductions are less than those achieved by DPFs but FTFs are less likely to plug under unfavorable conditions (e.g. high particulate matter, low exhaust temperatures and emergency circumstances).
Cleaner Fuels
Cost figure not available

Alternative diesel fuels such as: biodiesel, emulsified fuels, Fischer-Tropsch fuel or a combination thereof.

Natural gas, propane, ethanol or methanol.

The additional stringency for engines within 100 meters of schools (using as an example a 500 bhp engine operating 100 hours per year) is expected to reduce 40 to 60 pounds of uncontrolled emissions down to 1 pound after control. The estimated cost of compliance with the SCAQMD requirements for engines located near schools ranges from $0.6 million to $13 million (combined total cost of implementing the rule).

* ARB estimates that the cost of a new diesel generator is $93 per horsepower

 

ARB ADOPTS AIRBORNE TOXICS CONTROL MEASURE FOR STATIONARY DIESEL ENGINES

On February 26th of this year the California Air Resources board adopted an Airborne Toxics Control Measure for stationary compression-ignition engines. The ATCM applies to engines greater than 50 brake horsepower. The ATCM requires the use of CARB diesel, alternative fuel and/or CARB additives effective January 1, 2005. Engines located on school grounds are not to operate the equipment for non-emergency operation (testing & maintenance) when school activities are taking place. The following tables summarize some of the ATCM requirements.

Table 2. ATCM Requirements for New Emergency Engines:

Requirements for new engines
Compliance schedule
Cleaner fuel January 1, 2005
Maximum non-emergency operating time of 50 hours per year (except emergency use and emission testing) January 1, 2005
0.15 gram/bhp-hr PM standard or current model year diesel PM standard specified in the Off-Road compression ignition engine standards for off-road engines with the same horsepower rating January 1, 2005

Table 3. ATCM Requirements for In-Use Emergency Engines:

Requirements for In-use engines
Compliance schedule

Maximum non-emergency operating time of 20 hours per year (except emergency use and emission testing) with no limit on PM emissions

or

Maximum non-emergency operating time of 30 hours per year (except emergency use and emission testing) and limit PM emissions to 0.40 gram/bhp-hr

Owner/operator of up to 3 engines:

anuary 1, 2006
. If complying solely by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation.
. 1989 and earlier model year engines not complying solely by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation.

January 1, 2007
. 1990 through 1995 model year engines not complying solely by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation.

January 1, 2008
. 1996 through 2007 model year engines not complying solely by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation.

Owner/operator of four or more engines

January 1,2006
. If complying solely by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation for maintenance or testing
. 25% of engines model year 1989 and earlier if not complying by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation for maintenance or testing

January 1, 2007
. 50% of engines model year 1989 and earlier if not complying by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation for maintenance or testing
. 30% of engines model year 1990 through 1995 if not complying by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation for maintenance or testing

January 1,2008
. 75% of engines model year 1989 and earlier if not complying by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation for maintenance or testing
. 60% of engines model year 1990 through 1995 if not complying by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation for maintenance or testing
. 50% of engines model year 1996 and later if not complying by maintaining or reducing the current hours of operation for maintenance or testing

January 1, 2009
. All engines

Table 4. Requirements for Prime Engines

Engine type
Requirement
Compliance schedule
New diesel fueled >50 bhp 0.01 g/bhp-hr PM standard; or meet the current off-road PM certification standard for off-road engines of the same horsepower rating (whichever more stringent)
. Meet standards for Hydrocarbons, NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons + NOx, and CO according to the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards for the corresponding model year and horsepower rating or, if no standards are established, meet the Tier 1 standards in Title 13, CCR, section 24223 for off-road engines of the same horsepower rating, regardless of the model year.
January 1, 2005
Owner/operator of up to 3 In-use engines > 50 bhp, certified under the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards, complying solely by limiting number of hours for testing and maintenance

Option 1: Reduce diesel PM emission by 85% from baseline level

Option 2: 0.01 g/bhp-hr diesel PM emission rate

January 1, 2006
Owner/operator of up to 3 In-use engines > 50 bhp, certified under the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards, not complying solely by limiting number of hours for testing and maintenance

Option 1: Reduce diesel PM emission by 85% from baseline level

Option 2: 0.01 g/bhp-hr diesel PM emission rate

January 1, 2006
.1989 and earlier model year engines

January 1, 2007
.1990 through 1995 model year engines

January 1, 2008
.1996 through 2007 model year engines

Owner/operator of 4 or more In-use engines > 50 bhp, certified under the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards

Option 1: Reduce diesel PM emission by 85% from baseline level

Option 2: 0.01 g/bhp-hr diesel PM emission rate

January 1, 2006
Owner/operator of 4 or more In-use engines > 50 bhp, certified under the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards, not complying solely by limiting hours of operation for testing and maintenance

Option 1: Reduce diesel PM emission by 85% from baseline level

Option 2: 0.01 g/bhp-hr diesel PM emission rate

January 1, 2006
. 25% of model year 1989 and earlier engines

January 1, 2007
. 50% of model year 1989 and earlier engines
. 30% of 1990 through 1995 model year engines

January 1, 2008
. 75% of model year 1989 and earlier engines
. 60% of 1990 through 1995 model year engines
. 50% of 1996 and later model year engines

January 1, 2009
. All engines

Up to 3 In-use engines > 50 bhp, not certified under the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards

Option 1: Reduce diesel PM emission by 85% from baseline level

Option 2: 0.01 g/bhp-hr diesel PM emission rate

Option 3: 30% reduction from baseline in diesel PM and meet an emission limit of 0.01 g/bhp-hr for diesel PM

January 1, 2006
. 1989 and earlier model year engines

January 1, 2007
. 1990 through 1995 model year engines

January 1, 2008
. 1996 through 2007 model year engines

January 1, 2006 for 30% reduction in Option 3

July 1, 2011 for 0.01 g/bhp-hr rate in Option 3

Owner/operator of 4 or more In-use engines > 50 bhp, not certified under the Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Standards, not complying solely by limiting hours of operation for testing and maintenance

Option 1: Reduce diesel PM emission by 85% from baseline level

Option 2: 0.01 g/bhp-hr diesel PM emission rate

January 1, 2006
. 25% of model year 1989 and earlier engines

January 1, 2007
. 50% of model year 1989 and earlier engines
. 30% of 1990 through 1995 model year engines

January 1, 2008
. 75% of model year 1989 and earlier engines
. 60% of 1990 through 1995 model year engines
. 50% of 1996 and later model year engines

January 1, 2009
. All engines

January 1, 2006 for 30% reduction in Option 3

July 1, 2011 for 0.01 g/bhp-hr rate in Option 3

Table 5. ATCM Requirements for Engines participating in Demand Reduction Programs

Engine Type
Requirement
Compliance Schedule
New emergency engines, >50 bhp, located on school grounds No operation, for non-emergency use, including for maintenance and testing purposes, when school activities are taking place January 1, 2005

Table 6. Rule 1470 Requirements for emergency engines participating in Demand Reduction Programs

Engine Type
Requirement
Compliance Schedule
New emergency engines, >50 bhp, located 500 feet or less from schools . No operation, for non-emergency use, including for maintenance and testing purposes from 7:30 am to 3:30 pm. Engines meeting the 0.01 gram/bhp-hr limit are also subject. Two months after rule adoption
New emergency engines, >50 bhp, located more than 100 meters (328 feet) but less than 500 feet from a school . No operation, for non-emergency use, including for maintenance and testing purposes from 7:30 am to 3:30 pm. Engines meeting the 0.01 gram/bhp-hr limit are NOT subject. Two months after rule adoption
New emergency engines, >50 bhp, enrolled in DRPs on or after 1/1/05, not located within 100 meters of school . Diesel PM limit of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or Off-Road standard, whichever is most stringent.
. Maximum operation of 50 hrs/yr for maintenance and testing
. Maximum operation of 150 hrs/yr for Interruptible Service Contract operation
January 1, 2005
In-Use emergency engines, >50 bhp within 100 meters from a school, enrolled in ISC prior to 1/1/08 . 0.15 gram/bhp-hr diesel PM limit . No operation, for non-emergency use, including for maintenance and testing purposes from 7:30 am to 3:30 pm.
. Maximum operating time of 150 hrs/yr for ISC
Two months after rule adoption
In-Use emergency engines, >50 bhp within 100 meters from a school, enrolled in ISC after 1/1/08 . 0.01 gram/bhp-hr diesel PM limit . No operation, for non-emergency use, including for maintenance and testing purposes from 7:30 am to 3:30 pm.
. Maximum operating time of 150 hrs/yr for ISC
Two months after rule adoption
In-Use emergency engines, >50 bhp located more than 100 meters (328 feet) but less than 500 feet from a school, enrolled in ISC prior to 1/1/08 . 0.15 gram/bhp-hr diesel PM limit . No operation, for non-emergency use, including for maintenance and testing purposes from 7:30 am to 3:30 pm. Engines meeting the 0.01 gram/bhp-hr limit are NOT subject.
. Maximum operating time of 150 hrs/yr for ISC
Two months after rule adoption
In-Use emergency engines, >50 bhp located more than 100 meters (328 feet) but less than 500 feet from a school, enrolled in ISC after 1/1/08 . 0.01 gram/bhp-hr diesel PM limit . No operation, for non-emergency use, including for maintenance and testing purposes from 7:30 am to 3:30 pm. Engines meeting the 0.01 gram/bhp-hr limit are NOT subject.
. Maximum operating time of 150 hrs/yr year for ISC
January 1, 2008

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